The theoretical definition of the phenomena knows however a reduced consensus, despite the existent debates within research done on the matter, so that there has been little progress in the defining of, clear, valid and operational notions of child abuse and neglect Barnett, Manly and Cicchetti, ; Cicchetti and Barnett, ; Cicchetti şi Rizley, ; McGee and Wolfe, Naţional Research Council, in Cicchetti and Lynch, More than that, the above mentioned authors propose taking into account the nature of the experience which does not constitute an expected average.
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It is considered that it would be a mistake to think about child abuse in distinct sub-types since practice proves that there is a comorbidity between them, indicating that many abused children experience more than one type of abuse Cicchetti, Barnett, In most cases it is necessary to focus on the major type of abuse specific to the approached case, taking into account though the other subtypes too.
The above mentioned authors suggest the usage of a detailed nosology which can be applied to each possible abuse experience so that it could comprise its qualitative sense too. Thus, child abuse implies an operational and differentiated approach of each case in particular, beginning with the four major abuse categories. Physical abuse comprises the non-accidental injuring of the child, including the cases with deliberately injured children, as well as the ones injured because of insufficient supervision.
The usual signs of physical abuse are the contusions and burns Hobbs, cf. Kille,but there can be cases when more serious abuses have no exterior sign, as for example, head injuries done to a toddler, especially a baby. These injuries can have serious consequences as epilepsy, paralysis and development delays, which, many times are not identified until later, and are rarely associated with abuse.
The asserted operational definitions included within physical test ocular în mazyra the dangerous acts and cruel, inhumane punishments too. Aplicaţii which could affect ce vitamine pot îmbunătăți vederea or permanently the functions of one or many organs or tissues the test ocular în mazyra of inadequate medication or large amounts of alcohol or drugs, the use by a pregnant lady of toxic substances for the ce viziune a cobaiilor because of neglect or misjudgement, etc.
Other criteria of physic abuse categorizing point to the difference between the proved injuries and the ones admitted as being deliberate and the non-admissible ones.
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It is very difficult to assess if the injury is the result of a deliberate act or of the passivity and lack of child supervision. In certain countries there was suggested that only the deliberate injuries should be the limiting of the concept of child abuse.
This is very difficult to be done though the more the degree of intent is often unclear to the parents themselves. Another criteria used for delimitation make the difference between the physical disciplinary punishments and the physical abuse, exacerbating on the fact that the objectives test ocular în mazyra different. Many times though, what begins as a disciplinary relationship may end up as an abuse, parent intervention being the way by which it exteriorizes its internal tensions.
Physic abuse is characterized by being temporary and never occurs in its pure form. Fright as well as the emotional climate associated with it are acute and long lasting. Such acts are done by isolated individuals or groups which by their characteristics are in a position of differentiated force which makes the child vulnerable.
Ignoring: the adult deprives the child of the essential stimulation and communication test ocular în mazyra its affective maturity and intellectual development. The child is exported, forcedly grown up in the advantage and for the adult profit. One of the essential emotional abuse characteristics is that it implies a test ocular în mazyra model of conduct towards the child, conduct that becomes a dominant feature of its life Garbarino,Brassard, Germaine and Hart,Mc Gee and Wolf, and Killen, Kari Villen fits into the category of the children exposed to emotional abuse, the children with divorced parents with lack of ability to raise them.
Their pain at affective level lead to a poor development and weight gain. In each of the mentioned categories, the abuse can be found in different degrees. It can be more or less serious; extended on a longer or shorter period of time; can be associated with particular situations or chronical.
In some families the abuse aspect can have only one dimension, while in others the child can be exposed to many or all of the abuse types. In the absence of a secure base, as it is the case of the abused child, this one is exposed to social, emotional, physic and cognitive problems. The theories and researches about development theory on the trauma effects during childhood provided substantiation for the understanding of the possible connexions between traumas, self-esteem development and personality disturbance or adjustment problems for later on Masten et al.
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While the majority of studies indicated adjustment issues for a longer or shorter period of time at the abused children, it was at the same time emphasized that there is no uniform answer in all the cases Finkelhor vizik ochi iritati si rosii pareri Dziuba- Leatherman, This proves that there still are aspects not clarified yet on the diverse abuse type effects within different growth phases, the abuse varying in severity and duration, with respect to the relationship or test ocular în mazyra, the abuse circumstances nature and the complex interaction between vulnerability, stress and the actual family context Kendall-Taket, Wiliams şi Finkelhor,Mosten şi Wright, Plus, the children might show significant sequelae in different test ocular în mazyra and psychic areas different physically, cognitively, affectively and socially.
Recent research on adult disorder as borderline, anti-social and halving personality disorders pointed out test ocular în mazyra correlations between physic and sulfacilul de sodiu îmbunătățește vederea childhood abuse and the disorders that occurred later in the psychic system Putnam,van der Kolk, or in the relationship of the self with the others Wido, These hypothesis which put into a causal relationship the repeated abuse from preschool time with the personality disorders, are congruent with recent data proving the existence of language disorders, cognitive development, socio-emotional function, impulse control, frustration tolerance and the development of the self at severely abused children Carlson, Cicchetti, Test ocular în mazyra and Braunwold, ; Cicchetti, This new category was not adopted, but many professionals which work with persons that fit into this category children abused physically, sexually, abused women, victims of a crime or torture consider that this criteria of the post- traumatic disorders do not cover adequately certain symptoms associated with the victimization the case of the children abused or subjected to incest.
An observation highlighted by viziunea împuternicirii research and literature is related to the risk of inter-generations abuse transmission.
Also, most adults who abuse children were not abused in childhood, which shows that there is not a causal relationship between the two events Widom, Some examples of abused children adjustment are from studies on their test ocular în mazyra style.
Kaufman and Zigler summarized the characteristics shown by these people with manifestation of positive parental relationships. These include: a good relationship with one of the adults who took care of the child, mental solving of the abuse, high IQ, top talents, positive school experiences, physical attractiveness, a husband wife support, healthy children, social support, strong religious affiliation, economic security, etc.
Studies conducted on abused children and test ocular în mazyra Crittenden as well as those on deprivation Masten, O 'Connor, showed that despite the trauma many children overcome the situation and later function normally.
This path appears when the child benefits of a subsequent project environment, which proves the importance of a sympathetic approach of the child in its own environment. The attachment to the environment of belonging seems to be a prime factor in shaping the further positive development of the child. Conclusions Parental activities, characteristic to the child and the parents within family are considered thus factors with a very strong involvement in child abuse.
The studies on child abuse during the last years paid a particular attention to parents who abuse or neglect their children.
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Accidentally, one of those may be more acute, but there are always involved the other types. Even more there cannot be done a clear test ocular în mazyra between the different types of parents involved in these kind of phenomena. Even so, the studies and available literature about parents abusing children can contribute to a better understanding of the parents. On this line, raising awareness of the educative community regarding the implications of educative measures becomes a necessary objective.
The interrogation on the already in use educative practices and their impact on the children development may represent important training desiderates in professional training. References Barnett, D. Continuing toward an operational definition of psychological maltreatment.
Development and Psychopathology, 3, Brassard, M. The psychological maltreatment rating scales.
Carlson, V. Developmental Psychology, 25, — Cicchetti, D, Rizley, R. Developmental perspectives on the etiology, intergenerational transmission, and sequelae of child maltreatment. New Directions for Child Development.
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Cicchetti, D. How research on child maltreatment has informed the study of child development. In: Cicchetti D, Carlson V, editors. Child maltreatment. Cambridge: Cambridge University press; pp. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 11 — Failures in the expectable environment and test ocular în mazyra impact on individual development: The case of child maltreatment.
Cohen Eds. New York: Wiley. The developmental sequelae of child maltreatment: Implications for war-related trauma.
Fox Eds. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Aplicaţii Clausen, A. Finkelhor D. Hobbs, C. When burns are not accidental, Archives of Diseases in Childhood, Kaufman, J. The intergenerational transmission of child abuse. Cicchetti D. New York: Cambridge University Press. Kendall-Tackett, K. Impact of sexual abuse on children: a review and synthesis of recent empirical studies, Psychology Bulletin.
Masten, A. Risk, vulnerability, and protective factors in developmental psychopathology. Lahey, B. Plenum Press; New York.
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McGee, R. Psychological maltreatment: Towards an operational definition. Goldstein, S. O'Dougherty-Wright, M. Long-term effects of massive trauma: Developmental and psychobiological perspectives.
Rochester Symposium on Developmental Psychopathology: Vol. Developmental perspectives on trauma. Schipor, M. In Clipa, Test ocular în mazyra. Psychological trauma. Widom, C. Understanding the consequences for childhood victimization.
Reese Eds. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.